- Understand the Plant Kingdom and the taxonomic hierarchy.
1.1 Describe the major groups of the Plant Kingdom.
List the main groups within bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
This is quite an archaic way of grouping plants. The kingdom Plantae is usually divided into 10 divisions, listed below, with the groups in the syllabus in bold. Gymnosperms consists of Pinophyta, Cycadophyta and Ginkgophyta. Angiosperms = Magnoliophyta:
- Anthocerotophyta – hornworts
- Marchantiophyta – liverworts
- Bryophyta – mosses
- Lycopodiophyta – club and spike-mosses
- Pteridophyta – ferns and horsetails
- Gnetophyta – 3 extant genera of woody plants
- Cycadophyta – cycads
- Ginkgophyta – Ginkgo
- Pinophyta/Coniferophyta – conifers
- Magnoliophyta – flowering plants
Describe and compare the structural and reproductive characteristics of: mosses, ferns, conifers and flowering plants in relation to their adaptation to terrestrial life.
DETAILS OF ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS AND HAPLOID/DIPLOID STRUCTURES ARE NOT REQUIRED.
I’ve written about these four groups previously, the information about structural and reproductive characteristics is in the first two paragraphs of each blog
Brief description of reproductive characteristics:
Bryophytes – have sporophyte and gametophyte stages. Gametophyte is dominant.
Pteridophytes – have sporophyte and gametophyte stages. Sporophyte is typical fern, gametophyte is small and rarely noticed.
Gymnosperm – have male and female cones. Male cones drop pollen which is carried by wind.
Angiosperm – have flowers that may be dioecious, monoecious or hermaphrodite. Usually wind or insect pollinated (but other methods of pollination exist).
1.2 Describe features of plant classification and nomenclature relevant to horticulture.
State the hierarchy of botanical units and explain how and when they are used.
To include: family, genus, species, subspecies, varietas, forma.
To include ONE NAMED plant example for EACH of the above terms showing how it is written.
Have the ending -aceae (many family names were recently changed to conform to this). Plant families are usually named after the biggest or most well known genus in that family. eg Euphorbiaceae, the family that the genus Euphorbia is in.
Genus is a subdivision of family. The genus of a plant is used as the first part of its binomial name, and is always capitalised. It should be written in italics (or underlined). eg Euphorbia.
Species is a subdivision of genus. The species of a plant is used as the second part of its binomial name and is never capitalised. It should be written in italics (or underlined). eg characias (as in Euphorbia characias.)
Recommended abbreviation is subsp. but ssp. is sometimes used. Subspecies are written in small italics, but the word subsp. is not. A subdivision of species. Plants within different subspecies but within the same species are capable of interbreeding, but don’t due to geographical separation. eg Euphorbia characias subsp. wulfenii.
A subdivision of species, similar to subspecies (and the two terms often overlap) however, different varieties within a species may geographically overlap, unlike subspecies. Recommended abbreviation is var. Varieties are written in italics, but var. is not. eg Malva alcea var. fastigiata.
If a plant shows uncharacteristic appearance of its species (such as habit or colour) then it can be known as a different form. These differences are usually due to environmental reasons and won’t be passed to the next generation. Recommended abbreviation is f. The form is written in italics, but f. is not. eg Vinca minor f. alba.
Explain the meaning and use of the terms: cultivar, Group, trade designation (selling name), Plant Breeders’ Rights, interspecific, intergeneric and graft hybrids, naming authority.
To include ONE NAMED plant example for EACH of the above terms, showing how it is written.
Cultivar: This is short for ‘cultivated variety’ and refers to plants that have been bred for their characteristics. The names are often chosen as a selling point, for example using somebody’s name, making them a good present for people of the same name. eg Clematis ‘Willy’ (note the cultivar name is capitalized, in single quotes and not italicized. Because of the complexity of cross breeding across species, the species of a cultivar is only sometimes used.)
Group: If several cultivars are similar, they can be grouped together to make customer selection easier. eg Lilium Darkest Red Group (note the group is capitalized, not italicized, and not in quotes.)
Trade designation: Cultivar names cannot be legally protected. If a plant breeder wishes to keep sole legal rights to a plant, then he/she uses a trade name. This a commercial synonym that is legally protected. eg Rosa FASCINATION = Rosa ‘Poulmax’. (note: the writing method for ‘Fascination’ changes, sometimes it is in quotes, like a cultivar; other times it is in square brackets. The correct notation is all in capitals, not italicized, not in quotes, often in a different font.)
Plant Breeders’ Rights: Breeders using a Trade designation have Plant Breeders’ Rights which are recognised internationally. If you own the rights to a cultivar, it cannot be bred by anyone else without your permission. If somebody buys one specimen of your cultivar, you still have exclusive rights to all propagation material of that plant: seeds, cuttings etc.
Interspecific, intergeneric and graft hybrids: Unlike with animals, plants can be bred across species and genera. Plants of different genera can, in some cases, be grafted together, occasionally this will lead to a mixing of cells where the scion and the rootstock meet, this is not a true hybrid. It is also known as a graft chimaera.
- Interspecific hybrid – Mahonia × media (bred from Mahonia lomariifolia and Mahonia japonica, note the ‘x’ in the middle and new specific epithet.)
- Intergeneric hybrid – × Cupressocyparis leylandii (bred from Cupressus macrocarpa and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, note the ‘x’ at the beginning and the genus which is a combination of the parents’).
- Graft hybrid – +Laburnocytisus ‘Adamii’, (a graft hybrid between Laburnum and Cytisus, note the ‘+’ at the start and genus which is a combination of the parents’.) This graft contains flowers of Laburnum and Cytisus (ie both yellow and purple) but also flowers that are a pinky colour, a mix of the two.
Naming authority: The International Cultivation Registration Authority is a naming authority, responsible for seeing that cultivar names are not duplicated.
State the significance of the ICN (The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants) formerly ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) and the ICNCP (International Code for Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants) in the naming of plants.
The ICN (The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants) A code that governs plant discoveries in the world – ensuring that plants aren’t given different names by different discoverers, or that already named plants aren’t given new names without reason.
International Code of Nomenclature website Contains complex set of rules to standardise naming and classification eg changing all plant families to end in -aceae, Compositae > Asteraceae.
ICNCP (International Code for Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants) – a code that governs the naming of newly created cultivars.
(For more information about the latest ICNCP, there’s an interesting article on Gardening Wizards, here)
Explain the reasons for name changes: reclassification (scientific research, new discovery), changes in nomenclature (rule of priority), incorrect identification.
To include TWO NAMED plant examples for EACH.
Reclassification (scientific research, new discovery)
- With advances in DNA technology, African Acasias were found to not be related to Australian Acasias. Australian Acasias have kept their name, while African have become Vachellia or Senegalia.
- Coleus became Solenostemon, but was then found to be part of the Plectranthus genus. Plectranthus scutellarioides used to be Coleus blumei.
Rule of priority
This is where a plant is discovered to have been named previously, and its old name is found on record. When an existing name is discovered, the plant should revert to this name, but occasionally, if the new name is far more familiar it will be kept.
- Platanus ×acerifolia was the name of the London Plane, but this name was recorded in 1805 and it was discovered later that an earlier name of Platanus ×hispanica had been recorded in 1770. Therefore Platanus ×hispanica became the official name.
- Festuca subgenus Schedonorus was moved to the genus Lolium and its name became Lolium subgenus Schedonorus.
Sometimes a name change is due to a simple mistake, when one plant becomes mixed up with another.
- Archontophoenix cunninghamiana was for a long time incorrectly sold as Seaforthia elegans.
- Syzygium australe was often sold as Syzygium paniculatum
Explain how plant names can indicate: plant origin, habitat, commemoration, colour, growth habit, leaf form.
To include TWO NAMED plant examples for EACH.
It is often the plant species that indicates origin, colour etc, but not always (see below). The Latin will only refer to one characteristic (when Latin plant names were first used, botanists tried to include every characteristic, leading to ridiculously long names, then Linnaeus reduced it to two).
Plant origin: Mahonia japonica (Japan), Arum italicum (Italy)
Habitat: Clematis alpina (alpine plants), Pinus sylvestris (wood or forest)
Commemoration: Photinia fraseri (John Fraser1750-1811 nurseryman), Weigela (Christian Weigel 1749-1831 German botanist)
Growth: Briza maxima (large or largest), Vinca minor (smaller)
Habit: Cotoneaster horizontalis (growing horizontally), Phlomis fruticose (shrubby)
Leaf form: Acer palmatum (palmate leaves), Ilex aquifolium (pointed leaves)