Plant Divisions

The kingdom Plantae is split into ten divisions:

  • Anthocerotophyta
  • Marchantiophyta
  • Bryophyta
  • Lycopodiophyta
  • Pteridophyta
  • Gnetophyta
  • Cycadophyta
  • Ginkgophyta
  • Pinophyta
  • Magnoliophyta

Occasionally algae are included as a further two divisions Charophyta and Chlorophyta, but recent research classifies these as too primitive to be called plants. See Kingdom blog for more information.

Another division is Pteridospermatophyta, these are seed ferns dating from the Devonian period, and have died out.

Plant Divisions

Plant Divisions

Non vascular – plants without a proper system for transporting water through the plant, as a result these are small plants that need damp shady areas to live in. These were the earliest plants to evolve.

Vascular – plants that have a proper system for transporting water and sugars around the plant. The vascular system itself has continued to evolve, with Gnetophyta having a more evolved system than other Gymnosperms and Magnoliphyta having the most evolved system.

Spores – spores are a primitive form of reproduction.

Gymnosperms – seed producing, but the seeds are not contained in an ovary and there are no flowers . All are woody.

Flowering plants – no plants outside of the Magnoliophyta Division flower and this was the latest plant organ to evolve. Flowering plants account for most plants in existence (about 80-90%).


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